is a traditional performing art in Kerala, India. It is performed as a vazhipad (offering). Pattu kurup, a traditional community, is in charge of that function. This offering is performed for the blessings of gods like Bhadrakali, Ayyappan, Vettakkorumakan, serpent god, etc. This kurup makes the kalam picture (drawn on the floor using five colours) and he sings also.


(also known as Desathukali) are fast-moving, militant dances attuned to rhythmic devotional folk songs and asuravadyas. They are said to originate from the pursuit of martial arts when the region was under threat of attack from nearby Konganadu. Kannyarkali arose when dance and comedy were added to the martial training sessions. The dances may be performed in either the ritualistic Vattakkali style or the more relaxed Porattu style.


is a dance performed by the devotees during the ceremonial worship of Murugan, the Tamil God of War. It is often performed during the festival of Thaipusam and emphasizes debt bondage. The Kavadi itself is a physical burden through which the devotees implore for help from the God Murugan.

Kolam Thullal

is a ritual dance form prevalent in south Kerala, southern India. It is customary in houses and temples of Bhagavathy, a female deity. It is performed at temple festivals and to drive away evil spirits from the "possessed" bodies. Its origins lie with the Tinta group of the Kaniyar caste.


The Mahāyāna tradition is the larger of the two major traditions of Buddhism existing today, the other being that of the Theravāda school. According to the teachings of Mahāyāna traditions, "Mahāyāna" also refers to the path of seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings, also called "Bodhisattvayāna", or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle."


is a ritual dance drama from Kerala based on the mythological tale of a battle between the goddess Kali and the demon Darika. It is a community ritual in which the entire village participates. After the summer crops have been harvested, the villagers reach the temple in the early morning on an appointed day. Mudiyettu performers purify themselves through fasting and prayer, then draw a huge image of goddess Kali.


also called Padeni, (from the word for military formations) is a traditional folk dance from the central portion of the Indian state of Kerala. A ceremonial dance involving masks, it is an ancient ritual performed in Bhagavati temples. The dance is performed in honor of Bhadrakaali.


is a traditional dance ritual performed by men during the nine-day Pooram festival in Bhagavathy temples across North Malabar in Kerala State of south India. The Pooram festival begins with the Karthika asterism and concludes with the Pooram asterism of the month of Meenam according to the Malayalam calendar (corresponding to the sun sign Pisces according to the Julian Calendar) to honour Kamadeva, the god of love.

Pootham Kali

is a folk art more commonly performed in the Bhagavathy temples of Malappuram. Pootham is the character who accompanied Durga in her combat with Darika asura. The performers, usually three in number, undergo a week of austerity before the presentation. Colourful and intricately designed masks carved out of the pala and murukku trees are the highlights of the attire.

Pulluvan Pattu

At olden times in kerala, the people were divided into different castes (according to the work they do). A Pulluvan is a male member (female Pulluvatti ) of low caste group called Pulluvar. The term pullu means a bird of omen. The term pulluvan must have meant 'a person who predicts from the sound of birds'. There are many sub-divisions within the Pulluva community. The majority among them are called Nagampatikal (People who sing snake-songs).

Sarpam Thullal

Many ancient family houses in Kerala have special snake shrines called Kavu. Sarpam Thullal is usually performed in the courtyard of houses having snake shrines. This is a votive offering for family wealth and happiness. The dance is performed by members of a community called Pulluvar. In the first stage the pulluvan draws a kalam (the field) in with two or more twining snakes in the courtyard.

Sarppa Pattu

Hindu people of Kerala used to worship Nagas (Snakes) from old time. Meaning of Sarpa is snake and Pattu means song. Normally from the name Sarpa/Naga, it is means for Kobra snake. Nagas became God may be because of the fear. In Kerala there are many Nagaraja temples and Sarpa Kavu (A small jungle where it is beleived that Nagas are there). Sarpa Pattu is a ritual art performed in these temples to make Nagas happy.


Theyyam or Theyyattam or Thira is a popular Hindu ritual form of worship of North Malabar in Kerala state, India, predominant in the Kolathunadu area (consisting of present-day Kasargod, Kannur Districts, Mananthavady Taluk of Wayanad and Vadakara & Koyilandy Taluks of Kozhikode of Kerala state. As a living cult with several thousand-year-old traditions, rituals and customs, it embraces almost all the castes and classes of the Hindu religion in this region.

Thidambu Nritham

(dance with the replica of the deity) is a ritual dance performed in Temples of North Malabar. This is one among many rich art traditions of North Malabar. It is mainly performed by Namboothiris, and rarely other Brahmin communities. This northern part of present Kerala State is home for several prominent religious destinations that make it a heaven for several unique religious and ritual art forms including Theyyam.


Thirra is a ritual dance of North Malabar region in the Kerala State, South India, performed in Bhagavati temples. In most of the area of North Malabar region, Thirra is known as Theyyam. Thirra is performed primarily in Thalassery and Vadakara areas. This art form is performed by the artists of Peruvannan (Vannan) community.


Thiruvathira is a Hindu festival celebrated in the southern Indian state of Kerala on the full moon day of the month of Dhanu (December or January). The festival commemorates the death of Kamadeva, the Hindu god of love. It is believed that on this day, the Goddess Parvathi finally met Lord Siva after her long penance. Women performing Thiruvathirakali. This festival is also called the festival of women, because women will fast on this day to get good husbands.


Theeyaattam also known as Theeyaattu is a traditional dance form performed by the peoples of Theeyaattunni and Thiyaadi Nambiar,a sub-caste of Ambalavasi community in Kerala of southwestern India. There were two types of Theeyaattam - Bhadrakali Theeyaattu and Ayyappan Theeyaattu. Bhadrakali Theeyattu is performed by Theeyaattunnis whereas Ayyappan Theeyaattu is performed by Tīyyādi Nambiars.

Thottam Pattu

Thottam Pattu is a vocal ballad sung just before performing the Theyyam ritual. These are played in Theyyam temples before the commencement of Theyyam Art. Thottam Pattu is invocative. This is a mythological belief that by performing this ritual, the performer will be possessed by divine spirits. Thottam Pattu, the ritualistic songs which accompany the performance elaborate the legends related to the deities.


Velakali is a ritual art (dance) of Kerala a small state in south India, mainly performed at temples in the festival time. The performers, clad in the traditional clothes and colourful headgear of the medieval Nair soldiers, engage in vigorous movements and dexterous sword play, to the accompaniment of an orchestra comprising the maddalam, ilathalam, kombu and kuzhal.

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